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Post  polka23dot on Wed Nov 20, 2013 7:03 pm

Crony capitalism:
EXCERPT: "Raymond Vernon, specialist in economics and international affairs, wrote that the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, because they were the first to successfully limit the power of veto groups (typically cronies of those with power in government) to block innovations... For example, a Russian inventor produced a steam engine in 1766 and disappeared without a trace. A steam powered horseless carriage produced in France in 1769 was officially suppressed. James Watt began experimenting with steam in 1763, got a patent in 1769, and began commercial production in 1775."

The Locomotive Act of 1865 (also known as the Red Flag Act) required self-propelled vehicles on public roads in the United Kingdom to be preceded by a man on foot waving a red flag and blowing a horn. The flagman had to walk 60 yards (55 m) ahead of each vehicle. The speed limit was 4 mph (6 km/h) in the country and 2 mph (3 km/h) in towns. In 1878 the law was eased; the flagman had to walk only 20 yards ahead of the vehicle. By 1903 the speed limit was increased to 20 mph.

Whereas in Nazi Germany the state dominated economic actors, in inverted totalitarianism, corporations through political contributions and lobbying, dominate the United States, with the government acting as the servant of large corporations. This is considered "normal" rather than corrupt. While the Nazi regime aimed at the constant political mobilization of the population, with its Nuremberg rallies, Hitler Youth, and so on, inverted totalitarianism aims for the mass of the population to be in a persistent state of political apathy. source:

Indian efforts to create domestic defense industries has been crippled by corruption... Many of the problems with the Arjun tank project had to do with nothing more than government ineptitude...Efforts to develop missile systems has also been a long running failure. source:

Corruption is measured on a 1 (most corrupt) to 100 (not corrupt) scale. The three most corrupt nations have a rating of 8 (Afghanistan, North Korea and Somalia) and the least corrupt is 91 (New Zealand and Denmark). African nations are the most corrupt, followed by Middle Eastern ones... The corruption not only makes life difficult for locals and foreign investors but also has a major influence on military affairs...  Corruption in military spending is an ancient problem, with some of the oldest known historical records complaining about it. In many cultures, past and present it was taken as a given that, if you got a government job, you had a license to steal. In the military, this means weapons are built in substandard ways, equipment is not properly maintained and the troops are often not paid. Military corruption accounts for most of the poor military performance in the past, present and future. The corruption takes many forms. Mainly it is the idea that everything is for sale, like promotions and assignments. Lower ranking officers and NCOs will often sell weapons and equipment that was reported "destroyed" or "missing." Commanders who are not doing so well, can pay to have reports of their performance upgraded. source:

Efforts to curb corruption in Africa have been largely unsuccessful. Too many senior Africans consider corruption a right and something worth getting violent in defense of. The result is a lot of ineffective aid programs because there are not enough competent (in terms of training and experience) uncorrupted Africans available to carry out and sustain development projects. This is compounded by the fact that infrastructure (roads, power supply and so on) is generally inadequate to sustain many aid financed improvements. This is especially the case with anything that depends on regular supplies of electricity or outside goods (spare parts or maintenance assistance). While aid projects in urban areas have less problems with infrastructure, there is always the corruption there to steal money, equipment or anything of value. When you have enough uncorrupt staff to operate an aid project, the results are satisfying. But all too often the corruption and other problems take over as soon as the army (or aid organization) leaves and soon there is little left to even indicate that that there had been a substantial effort to improve the lives of the locals. The problem with aid programs is that those who authorize them, then get the necessary money and people to implement them tend to underestimate or ignore the obstacles corruption and unqualified (as in illiterate and untrained) locals impose. Literacy and other training programs help, but little has been done about the corruption because this is the most difficult problem aid workers will encounter. Even in situations that are critical to the very survival of the locals, like ones involving water supplies and improved agricultural techniques, are often crippled or delayed by the corruption. What it all comes down to is that as long as corruption is played down as a problem many, if not most, aid programs will be failures or much less than they could be. source:


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